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paul klee biografia

[86], Red/Green Architecture (yellow/violet gradation), 1922, oil on canvas on cardboard mat, Yale University Art Gallery, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, Senecio, 1922, oil on gauze, Kunstmuseum Basel, Basel, Fright of a Girl, 1922, Watercolor, India ink and oil transfer drawing on paper, with India ink on paper mount, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, Puppet without title (self - portrait), 1922. By 1905, he had developed signature techniques, including drawing with a needle on a blackened pane of glass. The Klee family fled to Switzerland, where he died on June 29, 1940. Biografia de Paul Klee Paul Klee (1879-1940) foi um pintor suíço, naturalizado alemão, considerado um dos artistas mais originais do movimento expressionista do início do século XX. He was also an international activist. Singer-songwriter Paul Simon is an iconic figure in American rock music. First of all, the art of living; then as my ideal profession, poetry and philosophy, and as my real profession, plastic arts; in the last resort, for lack of income, illustrations. By 1917, art critics began to classify Klee as one of the best young German artists. [63] Klee employed spray paint, knife application, stamping, glazing, and impasto, and mixed media such as oil with watercolor, watercolor with pen and India ink, and oil with tempera. Klee began teaching at Dusseldorf Academy in 1931. Klee’s artwork progressed slowly for the next five years. He had an illegitimate son in 1900 who died several weeks after birth. Actor Paul Lynde is best known for his work on the game show 'Hollywood Squares,' where he worked for 15 years. "[91], The art of mentally ill people inspired Klee as well as Kandinsky and Max Ernst, after Hans Prinzhorns book Bildnerei der Geisteskranken (Artistry of the Mentally Ill) was published in 1922. Above the roof of the "Parnassus" there is a sun. One of Klee's paintings, Angelus Novus, was the object of an interpretative text by German philosopher and literary critic Walter Benjamin, who purchased the painting in 1921. At the top of the cardboard, which carries the picture, the verses are inscribed in manuscript form. His partially morbid motifs appealed to the surrealists. [100] 8 Pieces on Paul Klee is the title of the debut album by the Ensemble Sortisatio, recorded February and March 2002 in Leipzig and August 2002 in Lucerne, Switzerland. [13], With his parents' reluctant permission, in 1898 Klee began studying art at the Academy of Fine Arts in Munich with Heinrich Knirr and Franz von Stuck. . As they assume that their counterpart could have been higher rated", they bow and scrape. Instead, Klee began to delve into the "cool romanticism of abstraction". [92], In 1949 Marcel Duchamp commented on Paul Klee: "The first reaction in front of a Klee painting is the very pleasant discovery, what everyone of us could or could have done, to try drawing like in our childhood. 6, the 1903 etching Zwei Männer, einander in höherer Stellung vermutend (Two Men, Supposing the Other to be in a Higher Position), depicts two naked men, presumably emperor Wilhelm II and Franz Joseph I of Austria, recognizable by their hairstyle and beards. [66], Some of Klee's early preserved children's drawings, which his grandmother encouraged, were listed on his catalogue raisonné. [72] Klee's solitary early work ended in 1911, the year he met and was inspired by the graphic artist Alfred Kubin, and became associated with the artists of the Blaue Reiter.[73]. [94], Unlike his taste for adventurous modern experiment in painting, Klee, though musically talented, was attracted to older traditions of music; he neither appreciated composers of the late 19th century, such as Wagner, Bruckner and Mahler, nor contemporary music. Examples are the watercolor painting Musiker (musician), a stick-man face with partially serious, partially smiling mouth; and the Revolution des Viadukts (Revolution of the Viadukt), an anti-fascist art. [76] Since 1919 he often used oil colors, with which he combined watercolors and colored pencil. Other exhibitions include the Sammlung Rosengart in Luzern, the Albertina in Wien and the Berggruen Museum in Berlin. "Klee's act is very prestigious. In 1880, his family moved to Bern, where they eventually, in 1897, after a number of changes of residence, moved into their own house in the Kirchenfeld district [de]. One of his last paintings, Death and Fire, features a skull in the center with the German word for death, "Tod", appearing in the face. Other examples from that period are der Goldfisch (The Goldfish) from 1925, Katze und Vogel (Cat and Bird), from 1928, and Hauptweg und Nebenwege (Main Road and Byways) from 1929. Peter Paul Rubens was one of the most famous and successful European artists of the 17th century, and isknown for such works as "The Descent from the Cross," "Wolf and Fox Hunt" and "The Garden of Love.". [78], The watercolor painting appears at a first glance childish, but it allows more interpretations. [3][50] His self-portrait Struck from the List (1933) commemorates the sad occasion. Paul Klee was a Swiss-born German artist. His Ad Parnassum (1932) is considered his masterpiece and the best example of his pointillist style; it is also one of his largest, most finely worked paintings. The composition "Wie der Klee vierblättrig wurde" (How the clover became four-leaved) was inspired by the watercolor painting Hat Kopf, Hand, Fuss und Herz (1930), Angelus Novus and Hauptweg und Nebenwege. [5] [69] The satirical etchings, for example Jungfrau im Baum/Jungfrau (träumend) (Virgin on the tree/Virgin (dreaming)) from 1903 and Greiser Phoenix (Aged Phoenix) from 1905, were classified by Klee as "surrealistic outposts". Paul Klee. In 1906, Klee married Bavarian pianist Lily Stumpf. His sister Mathilde (died 6 December 1953) was born on 28 January 1876 in Walzenhausen. [51] The Klee family emigrated to Switzerland in late 1933. That winter, Klee joined the editorial team of the journal Der Blaue Reiter, co-founded by Franz Marc and Wassily Kandinsky. [77], His works during this time include Camel (in rhythmic landscape with trees) as well as other paintings with abstract graphical elements such as betroffener Ort (Affected Place) (1922). In January 1911 Alfred Kubin met Klee in Munich and encouraged him to illustrate Voltaire's Candide. Although elements of the garden are clearly visible, a further steering towards abstraction is noticeable. Later that year the first Bauhaus exhibition and festival was held, for which Klee created several of the advertising materials. In 1937, some papers from Prinzhorn's anthology were presented at the National Socialist propaganda exhibition "Entartete Kunst" in Munich, with the purpose of defaming the works of Kirchner, Klee, Nolde and other artists by likening them to the works of the insane. In his "Theses on the Philosophy of History" Benjamin suggests that the angel depicted in the painting might be seen as representing the angel of history. @media(max-width: 767px) { .inferior { display: none; } } His J. Paul Getty Trust funds the J. Paul Getty Museum and other artistic endeavors. el var meses = new Array ("enero","febrero","marzo","abril","mayo","junio","julio","agosto","septiembre","octubre","noviembre","diciembre"); [56] He used heavier lines and mainly geometric forms with fewer but larger blocks of color. The later works are distinguished by spidery hieroglyph-like symbols. [71], Dame mit Sonnenschirm, 1883–1885, pencil on paper on cardboard, Zentrum Paul Klee, Bern, Hilterfingen, 1895, ink on paper, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, Third Invention: Jungfrau im Baum, 1903, etching, Museum of Modern Art, New York, Sixth Invention: Zwei Männer, einander in höherer Stellung vermutend, begegnen sich, 1903, etching, Zentrum Paul Klee, Bern, Aged Phoenix, 1905, etching, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, Klee began to introduce a new technique in 1905: scratching on a blackened glass panel with a needle. Klee taught at the Bauhaus from 1921 to 1931, alongside his friend Kandinsky. Under the impression of his military service he created the painting Trauerblumen (Velvetbells) in 1917, which, with its graphical signs, vegetal and phantastic shapes, is a forerunner of his future works, harmonically combining graphic, color and object. [30][31] One of the most literal examples of this new synthesis is The Bavarian Don Giovanni (1919). On meeting Kandinsky, Klee recorded, "I came to feel a deep trust in him. Bach and Mozart were for him the greatest composers; he most enjoyed playing the works by the latter.[95]. With his characteristic dry wit, he wrote, "After all, it’s rather difficult to achieve the exact minimum, and it involves risks. He often combined them into one work. Critic René Crevel called the artist a "dreamer" who "releases a swarm of small lyrical louses from mysterious abysses." En Biografías y Vidas. He used canvas, burlap, muslin, linen, gauze, cardboard, metal foils, fabric, wallpaper, and newsprint. Post-Impressionist French painter Paul Cézanne is best known for his incredibly varied painting style, which greatly influenced 20th-century abstract art. "[19] Klee was still dividing his time with music, playing the violin in an orchestra and writing concert and theater reviews.[20]. Klee was a natural draftsman who experimented with and eventually deeply explored color theory, writing about it extensively; his lectures Writings on Form and Design Theory (Schriften zur Form und Gestaltungslehre), published in English as the Paul Klee Notebooks, are held to be as important for modern art as Leonardo da Vinci's A Treatise on Painting for the Renaissance. The deaths of his friends August Macke and Franz Marc in battle began to affect him. [43] He was a "Form" master in the bookbinding, stained glass, and mural painting workshops and was provided with two studios. [11] In the years 1903–05 he also completed a cycle of eleven zinc-plate etchings called Inventions, his first exhibited works, in which he illustrated several grotesque characters. Se inscribió en la Academia de Munich, donde tuvo como profesor a Franz von Stuck (1898-1900) y se familiarizó con las teorías del Jugendstil, que más tarde pondría en práctica en obras como Cabeza amenazadora (1905). His early inclination towards the absurd and the sarcastic was well received by Kubin, who befriended Klee and became one of his first significant collectors. Klee created several pen-and-ink lithographs, including Death for the Idea, in reaction to this loss. Barcelona (España). Many of his works combine these skills. [32], After returning home, Klee painted his first pure abstract, In the Style of Kairouan (1914), composed of colored rectangles and a few circles. One of the biggest classic pop performers, Canadian singer-songwriter Paul Anka moved from teen heartthrob to adult artist with a slew of hits. In the 1918 watercolor painting Einst dem Grau der Nacht enttaucht, a compositional implemented poem, possibly written by Klee, he incorporated letters in small, in terms of color separated squares, cutting off the first verse from the second one with silver paper. He was inventive in his methods and technique. @media(min-width: 768px) { .inferior { width: 336px; height: 280px; margin: 0px auto;} } By 1917, Klee's work was selling well and art critics acclaimed him as the best of the new German artists. Posteriormente realizó una serie de dibujos inspirados en Van Gogh, Cézanne, Matisse y otros representantes de la escuela francesa. [24], The release of the almanac was delayed for the benefit of an exhibition. Klee has been variously associated with Expressionism, Cubism, Futurism, Surrealism, and Abstraction, but his pictures are difficult to classify. He began working on color experiments in watercolors and landscapes, including the painting In the Quarry. Many of his works and their titles reflect his dry humor and varying moods; some express political convictions. They visited in Rome, Florence, Naples and the Amalfi Coast, studying the master painters of past centuries. [47] Klee visited Egypt in 1928, which impressed him less than Tunisia. It was made using portions and cutouts from Paul Klee's paintings. In 2018, a Google Doodle was created to celebrate his 139th birthday. In 1916, he joined the German army, painting camouflage on airplanes and working as a clerk. [a] Under Swiss law citizenship was defined by the father's nationality and Klee thus inherited his father's German citizenship. [101] In 1995 the Greek experimental filmmaker, Kostas Sfikas, created a film based entirely on Paul Klee's paintings. The Villa R (Kunstmuseum Basel) from 1919 unites visible realities such as sun, moon, mountains, trees and architectures, as well as surreal pledges and sentiment readings. From that period he created Die Zwitscher-Maschine (The Twittering Machine), which was later removed from the National Gallery. .inferior_movil { display: block; width: 336px; height: 280px; margin: 0px auto;} Klee was able to develop his music skills as his parents encouraged and inspired him throughout his life. Klee’s artistic breakthrough came in 1914, after a trip to Tunisia. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); En 1911 entró en contacto con el grupo del Blaue Reiter (El caballero azul), lo que le permitió conocer a sus creadores, Vasili Kandinski y Franz Marc, así como a Alfred Kubin y a August Macke, con quienes expuso al año siguiente en Berlín. Since 1938, Klee worked more intensively with hieroglyphic-like elements. [8] At sixteen, Klee's landscape drawings already show considerable skill. [80] Nevertheless, they are an impressive example of Klee's imagery. The Invention Nr. "[46], Klee was also a member of Die Blaue Vier (The Blue Four), with Kandinsky, Lyonel Feininger, and Alexej von Jawlensky; formed in 1923, they lectured and exhibited together in the US in 1925. Here, Klee did not lean on Delaunay's colors, but on Marc's, although the picture content of both painters does not correspond with each other. That same year, Klee had his first exhibits in Paris, and he became a hit with the French Surrealists. I’m not a specialist. Paul Klee (German: [paʊ̯l ˈkleː]; 18 December 1879 – 29 June 1940) was a Swiss-born German artist. [17] The words on his tombstone, Klee's credo, placed there by his son Felix, say, "I cannot be grasped in the here and now, for my dwelling place is as much among the dead as the yet unborn. [44] In 1922, Kandinsky joined the staff and resumed his friendship with Klee. .inferior { display: block; width: 336px; height: 280px; margin: 0px auto;} André Breton helped to develop the surrealism and renamed Klee's 1912 painting Zimmerperspektive mit Einwohnern (Room Perspective with People) to chambre spirit in a catalogue. [22] In autumn he made an acquaintance with August Macke and Wassily Kandinsky, and in winter he joined the editorial team of the almanac Der Blaue Reiter, founded by Franz Marc and Kandinsky. In 1923, Kandinsky and Klee formed the Blue Four with two other artists, Alexej von Jawlensky and Lyonel Feininger, and toured the United States to lecture and exhibit work. [29] In gaining a second artistic vocabulary, Klee added color to his abilities in draftsmanship, and in many works combined them successfully, as he did in one series he called "operatic paintings". Paul Klee was born in Münchenbuchsee, Switzerland, as the second child of German music teacher Hans Wilhelm Klee (1849–1940) and Swiss singer Ida Marie Klee, née Frick (1855–1921). They lived in a suburb of Munich, and while she gave piano lessons and occasional performances, he kept house and tended to his art work. Föhn im Marc'schen Garten (Foehn at Marc's Garden) was made after the Turin trip. Whereupon Breton, as Joan Miró remembers, was critical of Klee: "Masson and I have both discovered Paul Klee. Zeichen in Gelb, 1937, pastel on cotton on colored paste on jute on stretcher frame, Fondation Beyeler, Riehen near Basel, Nach der Überschwemmung, 1936, wallpaper glue and watercolors on Ingres paper on cardboard, Revolution des Viadukts, 1937, oil on oil grounding on cotton on stretcher frame, Hamburger Kunsthalle, Die Vase, 1938, oil on jute, Fondation Beyeler, Riehen near Basel, Heroische Rosen (Heroic Roses), 1938, oil on canvas, Kunstsammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen, Düsseldorf, Insula dulcamara, 1938, oil color and colored paste on newsprint on jute on stretcher frame, Zentrum Paul Klee, Bern, Ohne Titel (Letztes Stillleben), 1940, oil on canvas on stretcher frame, Zentrum Paul Klee, Bern, Tod und Feuer (Death and Fire), 1940, oil on distemper on jute, Zentrum Paul Klee, Bern, Klee created in 1940 a picture which strongly differs from the previous works, leaving it unsigned on the scaffold. Schools in Gersthofen, Lübeck; Klein-Winternheim, Overath; his place of birth Münchenbuchsee and Düsseldorf bear his name. He died in Muralto, Locarno, Switzerland, on 29 June 1940 without having obtained Swiss citizenship, despite his birth in that country. As their clothes and insignia were bereft, "both of them have no clue if their conventional salute […] is in order or not. Klee was born in Münchenbuchsee, Switzerland, on December 18, 1879. A deep understanding of dealing with watercolors to paint a personal method in oil, structured in decorative shapes, let Klee stand out in the contemporary art and make him incomparable. His works reflect his dry humor and his sometimes childlike perspective, his personal moods and beliefs, and his musicality. Klee suffered from an autoimmune disease, scleroderma, toward the end of his life, enduring pain that seems to be reflected in his last works of art. Through variations of the canvas ground and his combined painting techniques Klee created new color effects and picture impressions. His highly individual style was influenced by movements in art that included expressionism, cubism, and surrealism. "[12] During these times of youthful adventure, Klee spent much time in pubs and had affairs with lower-class women and artists' models. Sometimes he uses complementary pairs of colors, and other times "dissonant" colors, again reflecting his connection with musicality. [29] Demonstrating his range of exploration, mixing color and line, his Warning of the Ships (1918) is a colored drawing filled with symbolic images on a field of suppressed color. En París se relacionó con Robert Delaunay y el clima cubista y centró definitivamente su interés en el movimiento y el tiempo, la luz y el color (en los que influyó notablemente su viaje a Tunicia, en 1914, con Louis Moilliet y Macke), con primacía sobre los valores psicológicos de las formas. In 1898, he began studying at the Academy of Fine Arts in Munich. It is located within the art history department, established by Franz-Joachim Verspohl. The aim was not to imitate nature, but to create compositions analogous to nature's formative principle, as in the works In den Häusern von Saint-Germain (In the Houses of Saint-Germain) and Straßencafé (Streetcafé). The private Klee: Works by Paul Klee from the Bürgi Collection, “Invention” Paul Klee at the Museum of Contemporary Art San Francisco, "Case Report on the Illness of Paul Klee (1879–1940)", "Ein Berner, aber kein Schweizer Künstler", "Paul Klee hinterließ kunstvolle Handpuppen. Bitterness and sorrow are not rare in much of his works during this time. The Klee family moved to Switzerland in late 1933. [84] During his 1929 travels through Egypt, Klee developed a sense of connection to the land, described by art historian Olivier Berggruen as a mystical feeling: "In the desert, the sun's intense rays seemed to envelop all living things, and at night, the movement of the stars felt even more palpable. [17] Returning to Bern, he lived with his parents for several years, and took occasional art classes. @media(max-width: 359px) { .inferior_movil { width: 300px; height: 250px; margin: 0px auto;} } The couple had a son, Felix Paul. On 17 January 1917, he was transferred to the Royal Bavarian flying school in Gersthofen (which 54 years later became the USASA Field Station Augsburg) to work as a clerk for the treasurer until the end of the war. Herein lies their real significance, particularly for an audience unaware that Klee's art has political dimensions. @media(min-width: 360px) { .inferior_movil { width: 336px; height: 280px; margin: 0px auto;} } [11] He barely passed his final exams at the "Gymnasium" of Bern, where he qualified in the Humanities. Two years later, he was fired under Nazi rule. Per Musi n. 19, jan–jun 2009, pp. During his twelve-day educational trip to Tunis in April 1914 Klee produced with Macke and Moilliet watercolor paintings, which implement the strong light and color stimulus of the North African countryside in the fashion of Paul Cézanne and Robert Delaunays' cubistic form concepts. In this mosaic-like work in the style of pointillism he combined different techniques and compositional principles. Thirty of the preserved puppets are stored at the Zentrum Paul Klee, Bern. "[29] With that realization, faithfulness to nature faded in importance. "[49] His home was searched by the Gestapo and he was fired from his job. The name of this art exhibition was Schwarz-Weiß, as it only regarded graphic painting. 100 cm × 126 cm (39 in × 50 in) This is one of his largest paintings, as he usually worked with small formats. In the later 1930s, his health recovered somewhat and he was encouraged by a visit from Kandinsky and Picasso. In the architecture of the ancient funerary moments Klee discovered a sense of proportion and measure in which human beings appeared to establish a convincing relationship with the immensity of the landscape; furthermore, he was drawn to the esoteric numerology that governed the way in which these monuments had been built. Su vida de recogimiento espiritual dio como resultado una prolífica obra. By 1905, he was developing some experimental techniques, including drawing with a needle on a blackened pane of glass, resulting in fifty-seven works including his Portrait of My Father (1906). "[23] Other members included Macke, Gabriele Münter and Marianne von Werefkin. [20] Klee's art work progressed slowly for the next five years, partly from having to divide his time with domestic matters, and partly as he tried to find a new approach to his art. Catalogue raisonné, volume 1, 1998, p. 512; Thomas Kain, Mona Meister, Franz-Joachim Verspohl; Reproduced alongside Gerg Traki's poem in Zeit-Echo 1915.A reverse, Berggruen, "Paul Klee – In Search of Natural Signs" in. window.onload=function comocitar() {citapers();citaurl();} Se inscribió en la Academia de Munich, donde tuvo como profesor a Franz von Stuck (1898-1900) y se familiarizó con las teorías del Jugendstil, que más tarde pondría en práctica en obras como Cabeza amenazadora (1905). [49] In 1933–34, Klee had shows in London and Paris, and finally met Pablo Picasso, whom he greatly admired. [64], He was a natural draftsman, and through long experimentation developed a mastery of color and tonality. He was so talented on violin that, aged 11, he received an invitation to play as an extraordinary member of the Bern Music Association. Among these figurations is "In Engelshut" (In the Angel's Care). Herwarth Walden, Klee's art dealer, saw in them a "Wachablösung" (changing of the guard) of his art. We strive for accuracy and fairness. [40], In 1919, Klee applied for a teaching post at the Academy of Art in Stuttgart. The film is entitled "Paul Klee's Prophetic Bird of Sorrows", and draws its title from Klee's Landscape with Yellow Birds. Klee became in a few months one of the most important and independent members of the Blaue Reiter, but he was not yet fully integrated. [26], The association opened Klee's mind to modern theories of color. He taught art in Germany until 1933, when the National Socialists declared his work indecent. During his 60th birthday Klee was photographed in front of this picture.[88]. [59][60] His art work was considered too revolutionary, even degenerate, by the Swiss authorities, but eventually they accepted his request six days after his death. [34], A few weeks later, World War I began. At first, Klee was somewhat detached from it, as he wrote ironically, "I have long had this war in me. The picture was influenced by grotesque lyric poetries of Alfred Jarry, Max Jacob and Christian Morgenstern. [57] Back in Germany in 1937, seventeen of Klee's pictures were included in an exhibition of "Degenerate art" and 102 of his works in public collections were seized by the Nazis.[58]. [70] It features a cultural pessimism, which can be found at the turn of the 20th century in works by Symbolists. [74] He never abandoned the object; a permanent segregation never took place. var f=new Date();document.write(f.getDate() + " de " + meses[f.getMonth()] + " de " + f.getFullYear());. [27] Rather than copy these artists, Klee began working out his own color experiments in pale watercolors and did some primitive landscapes, including In the Quarry (1913) and Houses near the Gravel Pit (1913), using blocks of color with limited overlap. He also created abstract works in that period such as Abstract and Farbige Kreise durch Farbbänder verbunden (Colored Circles Tied Through Inked Ribbons). In 1929, the first major monograph on Klee's work was published, written by Will Grohmann. [61] His legacy comprises about 9,000 works of art. Klee did not attend it, but in the second exhibition, which occurred from 12 February to 18 March 1912 in the Galerie Goltz, 17 of his graphic works were shown. Klee had his first exhibits in Paris around this time, finding favor with the French surrealists. He had so much to say, that a Klee never became another Klee."[93]. "[35] Klee was conscripted as a Landsturmsoldat (soldier of the reserve forces in Prussia or Imperial Germany) on 5 March 1916. (Münchenbuchsee, 1879 - Muralto, 1940) Pintor suizo.

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